Istanbul, Turkey Situated in the city and one of the country's 81 provinces. It is the most populous, economic, historical and socio-culturally important city in the country. The city ranks 34th in the world in terms of economic size, and first in Europe and sixth in the world according to the ranking made considering the municipal boundaries in terms of population..
Ancient Istanbul is both a historical and modern city. With the Neolithic Age settlement, which was unearthed during the excavations of the Yenikapı Theodosius Port, the history of the city dates back 8500 years. Thus, a new era has opened for the cultural, artistic, geological change and urban archeology that Istanbul has undergone. Greeks, on the geography where Istanbul is located today, BC. He founded the city of Bizantium in 700. This city became the capital of the Roman and Eastern Roman Empires under the name of Constantinople. After the Ottoman Empire conquered the city in 1453, the city was the capital of the Ottoman Empire for about five centuries and it was started to be called "Istanbul" by the Turks. Today, Istanbul is the largest city in the rapidly developing country, although it is no longer the capital. Its location around the Bosphorus makes Istanbul a bridge between Asia and Europe. Topography, which shapes the city settlement with the Bosphorus and Golden Horn, defines its silhouette, one of the most important symbols of the city. The history and culture of Istanbul can be seen in its architecture. The architecture of the city brings the West and the East together. In the city, there are Roman Period ruins such as Hippodrome, Basilica Cistern and Çemberlitaş, as well as Galata Tower, which was inherited by the Genoese. On the other hand, it is Byzantine and Ottoman structures that define the city. The most prominent among the Byzantine structures is Hagia Sophia, which has been standing as the most important monument in the world for about 1500 years. Today, Hagia Sophia is open to visitors as a museum. Among the Ottoman structures, Topkapı Palace, Sultanahmet Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, which were used as the dwelling and administrative center of the Ottoman sultans for centuries, and the Grand Bazaar and the Spice Bazaar, where the tradition has survived to the present day; are the monuments that define the city's culture and identity. The international importance of the cultural heritage sites of Istanbul has been recognized in the UNESCO World Heritage List by including them in the title of "Historical Areas of Istanbul". Istanbul is also a modern city. The population of the city of Istanbul and Turkey towards internal migration from rural areas has increased dramatically in recent years. Today, Istanbul, Turkey's total population, is home to 20 per cent, it produces 40 percent of GDP and 22 percent of its tax revenues. Almost all the centers of Turkey's creative and cultural industries, located in Istanbul. Approximately half of the museum visit, in Turkey (49 percent), while 30 percent of cultural performances are realized in Istanbul. The contemporary culture of Istanbul attracts more and more attention. the European Capital of Culture in 2010. Strengths of Istanbul "growing prosperity of Turkey's cultural and tourism leader and position as a pioneer, is important for increasing attention and all against art and culture is a young and dynamic population". While Istanbul integrates quickly with other energy cities and its dynamism, the city's policy makers position Istanbul as a “global city”.
City Traffic No: 34
City Code: European Side: 212, Anatolian Side: 216
Districts Arnavutköy, Adalar, Ataşehir, Avcılar, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Bakırköy, Başakşehir, Bayrampaşa, Beşiktaş, Beykoz, Beylikdüzü, Beyoğlu, Büyükçekmece, Çatalca, Çekmeköy, Esenler, Esenyurt, Eyüp, Fatih, Gaziosmanpaşa, Güngören, Kadıköy, Kâpaperhane, Kartal , Küçükçekmece, Maltepe, Pendik, Sancaktepe, Sarıyer, Silivri, Sultangazi, Sultanbeyli, Şile, Şişli, Ümraniye, Üsküdar, Tuzla, Zeytinburnu.
Total District Number: 39
The history of Istanbul dates back 8500 years with the Neolithic age settlement, which came to light with the excavations of the Yenikapı Theodosius Port, and a new era has been opened about the cultural, artistic, geological change and urban archeology that the city has undergone. Undoubtedly, the most striking feature of Istanbul's history is that it has been the capital of three universal empires such as Rome, Byzantine and Ottoman Empire. A.D. The Roman Empire expanded very much in the 4th century; Due to its strategic location, Istanbul was chosen by Emperor Constantine as the new capital for Rome. The city was reorganized in more than 6 years, the walls were expanded, temples, official buildings, palaces, baths and hippodrome were built. With the great ceremonies held in 330, it was officially announced that the city was the capital of the Roman Empire. The city, which was known as the names of Second Rome and New Rome at the beginning of the near age, was later called "Byzantion" and Constantinople in late periods. Among the people, the name of the city has been mentioned as "Police" throughout the history. It is understood that the emperors after the Great Constantine continued to beautify the city. The first churches in the city were also built after Constantine. Due to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, Istanbul has been the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) for many years. The city was rebuilt in the Byzantine period was extended again by walls. Today, 6492 m. long city walls, Emperor Il. It was built by Theodosius. In the 6th century city, the population of which exceeded half a million, another golden age was experienced under the Emperor Justinian administration. Hagia Sophia, which has reached today, is a work of this period. Latin domination, which was a black period between 726-842, started with the invasion of the city in 1204 of the 4th Crusade, and all the churches, monasteries and monuments have been plundered for years. The city, whose administration was taken over by the Byzantines in 1261, could not regain its former wealth. Istanbul was conquered by Turks in 1453 after a 53-day siege. Fatih Sultan Mehmet's huge guns, used for the first time in the history of war, are an important reason for exceeding the walls of Istanbul. The capital of the Ottoman Empire was moved here, the population of the city was increased with immigrants brought from various parts of the country, and the development work of the empty and devastated city was started. The freedom of religion and social rights were given to the old people of the city and they were ensured to continue their lives. A century after the conquest, Turkish Art left its mark on the city, and domes and minarets dominated the city skyline.
Since the Ottoman Sultans were the Caliphs since the 16th century, Istanbul has been the center of the entire Islamic world. Under the rule of the Sultans, the city was completely reconstructed and took on a fascinating atmosphere. Sultan Palace, located in the old acropolis, has dominated the unique view of the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. After the frequent contacts with the Western world since the 19th century, mosques and palaces began to be built on the shores of the Bosphorus, in the style of European architecture. Many palaces built in a short time are also symbols of the last period of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, Istanbul witnessed the end of the Ottoman Empire. While the Ottoman Empire was falling apart and internal and external enemies were fighting for their own share; With the support of the Turkish Nation, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, together with his comrades, engaged in a struggle to save the homeland. Following the War of Independence won by the will of the nation; Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923.
In this process, moving the capital to Ankara did not change the importance of Istanbul. This unique city continues to be one of the most important culture-tourism-art-finance and trade capitals in the world with its fascinating appearance.
Istanbul is a city built on two extremes, which serve as a bridge between the continents of Europe and Asia and where they approach most. These ends are Çatalca in the European continent and Kocaeli in the Asian continent; It is surrounded by Marmara and Bursa from the south, Tekirdağ from the southwest and Kırklareli from the northwest. The main Istanbul, which takes the name of the city and is located on the peninsula between Haliç and Marmara, is 253 km² and the whole is 5712 km². Islands in the Sea of Marmara are also included in the province of Istanbul. The vegetation of the Istanbul environment resembles the Mediterranean climate plants. The most common plant species in the region is maquis. These plants adapted to a long and dry summer season. But the hills are not bare due to the nature of the climate. The most important of the forested areas seen in places is 20 km from the city. Belgrade Forest in the north. There is no big stream in the province of Istanbul. The biggest stream is Riva stream, which is also the biggest water of Kocaeli Peninsula. 71 km. Riva Stream, which is, takes its resources from the province of Kocaeli and flows in the southeast-northwest direction and pours into the Black Sea near the village of Riva. Küçüksu and Göksu streams are the most important waters pouring into the strait. Apart from these, Kağıthane and Alibey Streams pouring into Golden Horn, Sazlıdere pouring into Küçükçekmece Lake, Karasu Stream pouring into Büyükçekmece Lake, Trança Stream pouring into Terkos Lake are the main streams of Istanbul Province. There are three small but important lakes in the province. All three are on the European side. The water of Terkos Lake, separated from the sea, is sweet. The water of the city is provided from here. The waters of the Küçükçekmece (11 km²) and Büyükçekmece (16 km²) lakes on the shore of the Marmara Sea are salty because they have contact with the sea. Although it seems that the summer months are generally hot and the winter months are not too cold due to the systems that affect the region, Istanbul has different features with the effect of the Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus. In the winter months, the cold-dry air mass coming from the Black Sea and the cold-rainy air mass coming from the Balkans are under the influence of warm and rainy southern air masses especially coming from the Mediterranean. In the whole province, the cold rainy (poyrazli) air of the Black Sea and the warm (lodos) air of the Mediterranean follow each other. There are no major temperature differences between summer and winter, day and night in the city.
In addition to minibuses and buses, sea vehicles, metro, metrobus, tramway, funicular are frequently used in urban transportation vehicles.
There is a highway connection from all over the country from Istanbul. The starting point of domestic transportation is the Harem on the Anatolian side and the international bus station on the European side in Esenler.
International Road Transport:
There are flights from Istanbul to Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Russia (Moscow), Romania, Bulgaria and Jordan (Amman).
Coach Station Tel: (+ 90-212) 658 05 05 - 658 10 10 - 658 00 36 (9 Lines) - 333 37 63 - 310 63 63
There are two airports in Istanbul, Ataturk Airport on the European Side and Sabiha Gokcen Airport on the Asian Side. In addition, there is the opportunity to rent aircraft and helicopters in Istanbul.
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